THE JULERS OF NORTH
Clockmakers, Ophthalmologists, Foundrymen and Estate Agents
The first branch started to grow from the trunk of the Barcham
Family Tree when, on 20 June 1746, Sarah Barcham (1726–1762) daughter of Mary (née Bacon) and William Barcham,
married John Juler, a clock and watchmaker in Market
Place, North Walsham. The wedding was at All Saints’
Edingthorpe. Nothing more was known about Sarah and John and their descendants
until John Marsden contacted Chris Farrow at the end
of last year. Since then Chris has received a tremendous amount of information
about them from John Marsden and others in England, Australia and the United States.
the Barchams, John Juler’s forebears have been traced
back to the 16th century in Norfolk. John’s parents,
Hannah (née Long) and Matthew Juler, were members of
the Independent [Baptist] Chapel in Bradfield, Norfolk, where their six
children were baptised. When they were married at All
Saints’ Edingthorpe Sarah was 20 and John 22. They had four children: James
(1747–1768) died when he was 21; John (1750–1825) married Hannah Dyball, and followed his father’s craft, which he handed on
to his son George (1786–1858) (see below) Matthew (b. 1752, died in infancy);
(1756–1837), who became an iron founder in Cambridge.
seems that certain genes determine the occupations we pursue, and that these
are passed on from one generation to the next. This is apparent in the crafts,
professions and trades that were pursued by this branch of the family. Whereas
the descendants of William Barcham of Church Farm, Edingthorpe, were
predominantly farmers and mariners, the descendants of William’s younger sister
Sarah were clock and watchmakers, pharmacists and surgeons, foundry owners and
Clock and Watch Makers
It is not known
where John Juler (senior) learnt his craft – from
another Juler clock and watchmaker in Norwich or London, perhaps. John’s
younger brother, Matthew (b. 1733), was his apprentice, but in April 1853 he
ran away to Lincolnshire and, in spite of several notices published in the Norwich Mercury, he was not apprehended
and brought back to his master.
June 2005, a clock made by John Juler was sold at
auction in Lincoln, England. The clock, which
the auctioneer expected to sell for between £700 and £1200
is described in the catalogue as:
long-case clock, the arched moon roller dial painted with globes and gilding to
the spandrels, signed Jno. Juler,
N. Walsham, the tall
mahogany case with domed hood, inlaid with a shell and with gilt vase finials,
flanked by fluted columns, the base with a long arched door on a rectangular
cross-banded plinth with ogee feet, 251 cm high.
wife, Sarah, died in late 1762. Her death distressed him so much that, on 28 March 1763, John sold his household furniture and
stock in trade at an auction. He continued to live in Norfolk for another ten
years; and bought several pieces of land in North Walsham, which were inherited by his son, John. In
about 1773, John (senior) went to Ponders End, Enfield, Middlesex, where
he died in 1797.
the eldest surviving son of John Juler (senior),
continued the clock and watch business in North Walsham, and bought property in Market Square in 1775.
Subsequently, he opened shops in Cromer and Bury St Edmunds. It is possible that John’s cousin, Asher Barcham,
learnt his craft as an apprentice under his uncle’s supervision before
establishing his own clockmaking business in Tonbridge, Kent.
John’s great-great-great-nephews (descendants of his brother Matthew) own
examples of his clocks made in about 1790. Also, at least four other members of
the Juler clan in the United States have other items
from the Juler clock works in North Walsham. These were all purchased in England and shipped to the United States, not brought in
when members of the family emigrated.
At North Walsham, on 24
October 1774, John (junior) married Hannah Dyball.
They had seven children. Their third child was George (1786–1858), who
inherited the clock and watchmaking business when his
father died in 1825. William Juler (1822–1845), son
of George’s younger brother William Fox Juler, worked
as a watchmaker for his uncle: he drowned while swimming in 1845, aged 23.
died in 1858 and left his estate valued at about £1000 to his nephew, Henry Cundell Juler, see below. Henry Cundell’s sister Elinor (b. 1823)
married a watchmaker, Benjamin W. Walker, at Norwich in 1849. They moved
to Bedford, Cambridge and finally to London, where Benjamin was
working at this craft in 1881. Since George did not marry, he had no direct
descendant to continue the business. However, it appears that the craft was
continued by William Juler (1795–1863). The common
ancestor of George and William has not been found yet. William started working
as a blacksmith with his father in Burnham Westgate, a market town in North Norfolk. Sometime between
1845 and 1851, he became a watchmaker and gunsmith. William may have learnt his
craft from George. William married Alice Nailer in
1819, and had eight children, three of whom became watchmakers.
junior (1820–1879) was working as an engraver in St Ives, Cornwall, when he married
Mary Ann Clemence in 1851. Later, William went to Australia, and Mary Ann
sailed from Southampton aboard the Grand Trionon, and joined him in Victoria on 20 August 1858. They settled at Creswick,
near the gold-rush town of Ballarat, where William
advertised his business in the Creswick and Clunes Advertiser:
Has constantly on hand the following articles:
– English, French, American, Lever &c;
– a great variety; Jewellry of all kinds;
instruments and strings for ditto; Electric plated goods;
Spectacles & eye glasses; Thermometers, &c, &c.
Miles (1822–1905), second son of William and Alice, became a
watchmaker, working for his father in Burnham Westgate until in 1856 he married
Sarah Bidwell and they moved to Great Yarmouth where
he had premises at 37 King Street.
and William’s third son, George (1830–1900) also became a watchmaker. In 1857,
he married Frances Mitchley. They lived in Norfolk until some time in
the 1870s, when they moved to Southwold, Suffolk. Frances and George
had seven children of whom the eldest Herbert (1858–1911) was a watchmaker.
Herbert married Amelia Ladd and had a son Ernest Henry (1878–1909) who was
raised by his grandmother and lived most of his life in Southwold,
where he was a master jeweller and watchmaker.
The Julers’ clock and watchmaking
dynasty lasted through six generations: two as direct descendants of John Juler (senior) of North Walsham; and three
generations of William Juler’s descendants. When John
Juler became a clock and watchmaker in the 1750s most
of the mechanisms and cases were hand-crafted; later parts and mechanisms were
factory-made and assembled by craftsmen who signed their work; now clocks and
watches are all factory-made, and repairs are the only work requiring skill.
Chemists, Doctors and Surgeons
Following the theme
of sons following their fathers’ occupations, one branch of the Juler family went into pharmacy, medicine and surgery. Over a period of about 180 years from 1790,
five generations of Julers have been pharmacists,
doctors, dental or ophthalmic specialists, during which time they made
significant contributions in their professions, and were recognised
for their exceptional skills.
Fox Juler (1794–1843), the youngest of Hannah and
John Juler’s seven children, became a pharmaceutical
chemist in North Walsham. In 1817 he married
Mary Allistone. Mary and William had ten children,
who were born between 1819 and 1836. The family lived in Wymondham,
Norfolk, until about 1828, when they moved
to the Norwich area. After William
Fox Juler died in 1843, aged 49, his widow continued
to run the chemist’s shop in St James Road, Norwich, with the help of their
son, Richard Roan (1829–1792), and daughter Elinor
(b. 1823) until 1849, when she married Benjamin Willonspread
Walker, a watchmaker, and moved to Bedford (see above). After working with his
widowed mother for some time, Richard Roan moved to Woolwich, Kent, where he was a
surgeon dentist, living at 110 Powis Street with his wife and
two children when enumerated in the 1881 census.
and William Fox Juler’s eldest son, William
(1820–1845), was adopted by his uncle Henry Juler,
and went to work for Henry’s brother George, the clockmaker in North Walsham. When William drowned in August 1845 Henry
adopted William’s younger brother, Henry Cundell Juler (1827–1913). Henry Cundell,
then aged 16, had decided to devote his life to medicine and surgery;
presumably he had also worked in his father’s shop with his elder brother and
sister. On the advice of the executor of his grandfather’s estate, Jedidiah Barcham, Henry Cundell
went to London to begin his
studies. In 1853, he became a member of the British Medical Association, and
Licentiate of Midwifery; and in 1855 he obtained his Doctor of Medicine degree
at the University of Aberdeen, and was appointed
surgeon assistant at Aberdeen Infirmary. He was then 28. In 1856, he became a
Licentiate of the Apothecaries Hall.
of staying in Aberdeen, Henry Cundell Juler appears to have
been a general practitioner in Isleham, Cambridgeshire, where in 1856 he married Caroline Seaber (née Robins) a widow, aged 41. She may have had a
son by her previous marriage: Henry Edward (1842–1921) was adopted by Henry and
took his stepfather’s surname. Caroline and Henry Juler
lived in Isleham from 1856 until about 1862, when
they moved to London, where they lived first at 65 Connaught
Terrace, Edgware Road, then at 17 Lower Seymour
Street, Marylebone and finally at 5 James Street, W2.
Henry Cundell Juler was a
brilliant doctor and a ‘high flyer’. Unfortunately, he was a homosexual, which
was unacceptable in those days, and appeared as a witness at the Central
Criminal Court [Old Bailey] in September 1866.
His appearance in court may have been the reason why he went to the United States in October 1866, on
the eve of being elected house surgeon at Westminster Ophthalmic Hospital. It is not known if
Caroline sailed with him or if she came later when Henry Cundell
had established himself as a physician and surgeon in Cincinnati, Ohio. Between 1871 and
1874, he published a number of papers on medicine, and became a well-respected
physician. Juler Avenue in Cincinnati is named after him.
Later, Henry Cundell studied law at Cincinnati Law College, graduated with an LlD degree in 1875, and was admitted to practice at the
Bar. Caroline died in 1871, aged 57.
It is known that Henry returned to
London several times, including once when he was invited to a conversazione at
the Royal College of Surgeons in June 1879, and to a reception given by the Municipalité de Paris at the Hotel de Ville. He was in London again in the
summer of 1905, when he was convicted at Marlborough Street Police Court ‘for
committing an act in violation of public decency in Hyde Park’; and the
following year his name was struck from the Medical Register after a hearing
during the winter session of the General Medical Council, which Henry Cundell did not attend. Henry Cundell
Juler died in 1913, aged almost 85.
Henry Edward Juler and Frank Anderson Juler:
Henry Edward Juler (1842–1921), trained as a medical student at St Mary's
Hospital, Paddington, where his father Henry Cundell Juler was a Governor. After Henry Cundell
Juler and his wife Caroline emigrated
to Ohio, Henry Edward remained in the United Kingdom and became a well-known ophthalmologist. By the time
he was 40 in 1882 he had written a Handbook
of Ophthalmology. Later published worldwide in 1884 as Handbook of Ophthalmic Science and Practice, it went to many
editions over subsequent years. Henry Edward became a senior surgeon at the Royal Westminster Eye Hospital in London, and
subsequently chief of service there from 1894 to 1911. He maintained his
relationship with St Mary's Hospital, Paddington, where he had trained as a
In 1882 Henry Edward Juler
developed a small reflecting ophthalmoscope, which had a rotating disc of 21
lenses. In 1886, he modified the design to include an external electric light
bulb, powered by a battery. This made it one of the earliest electric
ophthalmoscopes. It was very popular in the United Kingdom and was also sold overseas. These instruments were
made on his behalf by the well-known (at that time) optical instrument maker,
the Hungarian Moritz Pillischer, and his nephew Jacob
Pillischer, who took over from Moritz in 1887. Moritz
had a retail shop at 88 New Bond Street at that time. Moritz died in Brighton in 1893, aged 74.
His nephew Jacob (also born in Hungary) married an English girl (Rose) and became a
naturalised British subject in 1911. The photo shows a Juler/Pillischer ophthalmoscope from Buffalo (New York) University [for more information on Henry Edward Juler’s
ophthalmoscopes see the article by Norman B Medow, Ophthalmology Times, 15 March 2006].
Henry Edward Juler's son,
Frank Anderson Juler (1880-1962), also became an
ophthalmologist and developed some ophthalmic equipment himself. These items
were manufactured on his behalf by the Keeler Instrument Company. The company
still exists and their manufacturing works are just outside Windsor, some 25 miles west of London. Over many years, Frank Anderson Juler
built up a substantial collection of historical ophthalmic equipment. Much of
the collection was passed on to Richard Keeler of Keeler Ltd, who is the
curator of the museum of The
Royal College of Ophthalmologists, 17 Cornwall Terrace, London, NW1.
In 1879, Henry Edward Juler married
Amy Margaret Churchill (née Anderson). They lived at 77 Wimpole Street until 1892, moved
to Harcourt House in Cavendish Square, then in 1921 to 17
Alexandra Court, Queen’s Gate, South Kensington. Henry Edward died
on 21 April 1921; and Amy Margaret
died on 22 September 1922.
and Henry Edward Juler had five children: the eldest,
Frank Anderson (1880–1962) followed his father’s profession and became a
distinguished ophthalmic surgeon, working at St Mary’s Hospital and at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London, as well as being
appointed surgeon-occulist to King George VI’s
household from 1936 to 1951, and since then extra surgeon-occulist
to Queen Elizabeth II’s household. His obituary and
account of his funeral were published in the Times on 8 and 13 February 1962:
MR. F.A. JULER
Anderson Juler, C.V.O., who died yesterday at the age
of 81, was, like his father, Henry Juler, a
distinguished ophthalmic surgeon . . . He was born on August 22, 1880, and from
St. Paul School went up to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he took a first in
the Natural Science Tripos, Part 1, before going on
to ST. Mary’s Hospital, Paddington. He served in the
First World War in the R.A.M.C., and was consulting ophthalmologist to the
B.E.F. [British Expeditionary Force] in France in
1939-40. He was president of the Ophthalmological
Society of the United Kingdom from 1948 to 1950; president of the ophthalmic
section of the Royal Society of Medicine from 1942 to 1944; and in 1946-47
president of the Faculty of Ophthalmologists. He was created C.V.O. in
Mr. F.A. Juler
The Queen was
represented by Mr Allen Goldsmith at the funeral
service for Mr. Frank Anderson Juler yesterday at All
Souls’, Langham Place. The Rev. J. R. W. Stott and the Rev. Dr. F Coventry took part in the service.
Among those present were:
Mrs. Juler (widow), Dr.
Humphrey Juler (son), Dr. and Mrs. [Phyllis] Donald
Brooks, Captain and Mrs. [Betty] Edward Hale, Mr. and Mrs. [Pauline] Bernard
Richards, and Mr. and Mrs. [Joyce] Julian Hemmingway (sons-in-law and daughters)
. . . Mr. Frank Law (president of the Ophthalmological Society of the United Kingdom|) . . . Mr.
J.R. Hudson (representing the Faculty of Ophthalmologists0, Mr. Keith Lyle
(Dean of the Institute of Ophthalmology), Mr. J.P. Heming
(house governor, Moorfields Eye Hospital,
representing the board of governors), Miss. M.B. McKellar
(matron, Moorfields Eye Hospital) with senior
representation of the nursing staff, . . .
Anderson Juler had married Mabel
Alicia Chamberlayne in 1907. They lived at 24 Cavendish
Square until 1924, then at 14 Portland Place [the site is now
the BBC’s headquarters], and later at 96 Harley Street, W1. They had five children, two of whom had
connections with the medical profession: the eldest, Phyllis Kathleen (b. 1908)
married William Donald Wykeham Brooks; and the
youngest, Humphrey Desmond Juler (b. 1918) was a
doctor in Charlbury, Oxfordshire.
Some Barchams and Julers were blacksmiths or practised
other trades, but another branch of the Juler family
owned an iron foundry.
Matthew (1756–1837), the youngest
child of Sarah (née Barcham) and John Juler
might have worked at an iron foundry in North Walsham before he moved to Cambridge, probably sometime
in the 1780s. According to Cambridge Iron
Founders, a booklet published by the Cambridge Industrial Archaeology
Society in 1996, there were eight iron foundries in and near Cambridge in the 19th
century. One of the foundries was started by Matthew Juler
on a piece of land on White Hart Lane in King Street, leased for 40
years from the trustees of the Holy Trinity Estate Charity, paying £15 per year
rent. According to the lease, dated 22
. . . on
which ground a substantial building of brick and tile is to be erected by and
at the expense of Mr. Juler . . . He will not permit,
at any time, the said property to be used to carry on the trade of tallow
chandler, soap boiler, pipe maker or erect a coke oven, or keep pigs or cows,
or to carry on a noisome or offensive trade whatsoever (Save and except the
trade or business of an iron founder . . .)
Matthew’s sons John (1801–1894) and Matthew (1793–1827); and his
grandsons Charles Juler (1812–1885, illegitimate son
of Sarah Juler) and John Barton (1826–1862, son of
Eliza (née Barton) and John Juler) were also iron
founders. When Matthew (senior) retired, John took over the foundry and ran it
in partnership with his brother Matthew until the latter died. From about 1851,
John and his wife Julia (née Tooby) lived in Ipswich until they returned
to Cambridge in about 1858, during which time his
son John Barton may have managed the foundry. John retired in 1861; and between
1861 and 1864 the premises and business were taken over by William C. Shippey, who advertised himself as an ‘iron and brass founder
and repairer of agricultural machines’.
Unfortunately, the Cambridge Industrial Archaeology Society has
not found any cast iron work that can be definitely attributed to the Julers. However, family evidence has it that the manhole
covers to the sewers in Cambridge were stamped ‘John Juler’ until they were replaced in the mid 20th century. A
little of William Shippey’s work survives: there are
nine bollards in Parker’s Place adjoining the University Arms Hotel, inscribed
‘Shippey Maker, Corporation of Cambridge’.
Real Estate Agents
the fifth child of Hannah (née Dyball) and John Juler, married
William Lound, at Elsing, Norfolk in 1812. William
was a linen draper in Bermondsey, London. Mary died in 1837,
aged 46, leaving her estate to her two children, in trust until they were 22.
William survived her by 14 years until he was run over by an omnibus in City Road and died of his
injuries a few days later on 25 January 1851, aged 61.
Mary and Henry had two children. Mary Ann (1826–1902) was baptised at St Mary Magdalene, Bermondsey,
the church where Anne Edwards and William Ayres Barcham
were married nine months earlier. She married her second cousin John Lound at St Andrews, Holborn, in 1848. At the time of their marriage, John was
an auctioneer and house agent in partnership with William Nedby.
John went on to establish his own business and became a wealthy man. In 1871, the family was living at 86 Addison Road, Holland Park, Kensington,
and employed a cook, housemaid and coachman. Ten years later, John and two of
his unmarried daughters were living at 35 Kensington Park Gardens, Notting Hill.
The boom in property development in Bayswater,
Kensington and Earls Court that followed the
1851 Great Exhibition in Hyde Park, were prosperous
times for John Lound’s real estate business. He died
in 1884, leaving a personal estate of more than £73,000: Mary Ann was left a
sum of only £1000, ‘seeing that I have already made ample provision for her.’
The remainder of his personal estate was left to his eight surviving children,
family and friends. His home was sold the following year.
Mary Ann and John Lound’s eldest son
John Adams (b. 1851) was working for his father in Chancery Lane on an annual salary
of £200 in 1879. Later he became a solicitor, and lived with his wife at 17 Porchester Gardens, Bayswater. Their second son Claude Demetrius
Gordon (1853–1927) was a surveyor. In
1884 Claude inherited his father’s business, which became known as Lound and Howitt, Auctioneers and
Surveyors. Claude was a hotel valuer and owned the
license for the County Arms Hotel on Trinity Road, Wandsworth.
Henry (1730–1909), Mary and Henry Lound’s
second child, emigrated to Australia in 1852, aboard the
Anglesey, with his unmarried
cousin Sophia Lound. Henry followed his father’s
trade and became a mercer and later a partner in Lound
and Geary, a firm of merchants in Sydney. When this business
failed, Henry and his family moved to Singleton NSW, where he advertised as an
Auction Rooms, George Street, Singleton
Henry Lound, Auctioneer,Valuator,
House Land and Estate
Paddocks, Yards, &C.
Horses, Merchandise, Furniture, &c Every Tuesday and Saturday,
Land and Property on Thursdays.
There is a parallel with the Barcham branch. In 1809, Captain William
Barcham (1771–1859) left the sea and became a farmer, auctioneer and
land agent at Mundesley. In 1839, he was one of the
commissioners appointed for the tithe assessment of the Parish of Edingthorpe:
the assessment for Church Farm was £62-1s. When William died in 1859, the
auction business was continued by his son Thomas (b. 1818) and grandson Herbert
Samuel (b. 1849). The business was known as Barcham and Son, and had a sales
ground in North Walsham. Herbert Samuel
lived at Knapton Old Hall, which he leased from the
trustees of Peterhouse College, Cambridge.